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.     INTBODUCTOBY  ESSAY.                               187
sun-power, to which the-open nature of many of the valleys
contributes in no small degree.
The principal plants of the tropical zone of Nipal belong to
a less humid type than those of Sikkim, and are abundant all
over the subtropical mountains of India, where a dry and wet
season alternate. The commonest trees are Moringa, Putran*
jiva^ 'Bombax, Vatica robusta, Buchanania, Spondias, Buiea
frondosa and parviflora, -Erytkrina, Acacia Lebbek and stipu-
laris, Bauhinia purpwrea and Vahlii, Ventilago, .Conocarpus,
Terminalia, Nauclea cordifolia, and Ulmus integrifolia.
In the plain of Kathmandu, which is elevated 4000 feet,
the ground is in a great measure under cultivation, and the
hills are bare of trees. The vegetation and climate are there-
fore subtropical, and from the 'position "of the Kathmandu
plain, dose to the ridge of the spur which separates the ba-
sins of the Gandak and Kosi, its mean level is probably
greater than that -of many of the valleys of both rivers, and
of the ridges which separate their tributaries.
In the temperate flora of central Nipal, for the same rea-
son, the Japanese and Malayan types are much fewer; En-
HantJms, Stachyurus, Vaccinia, Aucuba, Hefauingia, several
Rubi, and Rhododendran-Dalhousiae and Edgeworthii being all
absent,, while European and west Himalayan forms which are
wanting in Sikkim make their appearance. In the extreme
east of Nipal, in the valley of the Tambar river, Rhododen-
drons are scarcely less abundant than in Sikkim; but those
of the temperate zone are. certainly entirely wanting in that
part of central Nipal from which Dr. Wallich obtained his
collections, with the exception of R. arboreum, which is found
throughout the whole Himalaya, R. barbatum, which extends
to Kumaon, and R. campanulatum, which is a subalpine spe-
cies. The more alpine species cannot be so positively affirmed
to be absent, but it is highly probable that the number of
species is not great, none having been obtained by Dr. Wal-
lich's collectors, but such as are universally distributed
throughout the Himalaya. The pines are the same as those